Contents

Volume 4 Number 3 2002
ISSN: 1461-3557  eISSN: 1478-1603

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Theoretical Papers

Weapon carrying as a behavioural consequence of fear and crime
Caroline Miller      169

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 169

Weapon carrying as a behavioural consequence of fear and crime
Caroline Miller

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nascent 'fear of crime' among young people. Past examination of this issue, usually confined to adult subjects, has pinpointed several behavioural implications of such fear (such as staying at home). However, more serious protective behaviours such as weapon carrying have been relatively neglected. One hundred and ten residents in and around a major city in the south of England, aged between 16 and 24, completed a questionnaire about their personal fear of crime and its behavioural consequences. In particular, weapon-carrying behaviour and its association with gender, residential environment and personal victimisation experience were examined. Although females reported a higher overall fear of crime than males, they were no more likely to carry weapons due to this fear. However, they were significantly more likely than males to carry weapons as a result of specific fear of a sexual offence. In addition, a significant difference was found between the types of weapon carried by males and females. Living in a residential area with 'incivilities' had little effect on weapon-carrying behaviour, as did previous victimisation.

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Educating our police: Perceptions of police administrators regarding the utility of a college education, police academy training and preferences in courses for officers
C. Wayne Johnston and Sutham Cheurprakobkit      182

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 182

Educating our police: Perceptions of police administrators regarding the utility of a college education, police academy training and preferences in courses for officers
C. Wayne Johnston and Sutham Cheurprakobkit

This study examines the attitudes of 100 law enforcement administrators regarding the importance of higher education. It considers higher education by itself, higher education compared to police academy training, and the impact of two independent variables (job position and college education) on the attitudes of the respondents. The study uncovers several interesting findings: although half of the departments assist or pay total educational expenses for their officers, approximately three-quarters of them prefer some college education or a two-year degree over a four year degree; knowledge about report writing, ethics, legal aspects and police procedures, in that order, are considered most important, while research and organisational theory were ranked the least important; and (educational level has the most impact on respondents' attitudes, particularly regarding the issues of whether 'degreed' officers had fewer complaints filed against them, made better decisions, or were generally higher quality officers. Notwithstanding the first result, slow progress toward a positive education ideology is apparent; the overall findings reveal that law enforcement administrators have begun to see higher education as an important element of police training. Several recommendations for police policies are included.

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Police leadership as a transformational social progress
Edward N. Drodge and Steven A. Murphy      198

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 198

Police leadership as a transformational social progress
Edward N. Drodge and Steven A. Murphy

Police leadership is described as a social process that involves formally identified leaders, followers and the contextual factors comprising police work. Community policing is cited as an example of organisational change requiring shared leadership, or leadership manifested by individuals at all levels of a police organisation and the community stakeholders comprising the social context. Several broad theoretical accounts of leadership with relevance for police leadership are then sketched, with particular emphasis on transformational leadership theory. The transformational model focuses on several social processes that account for organisational change, and highlights the shared responsibility for leadership in order to effect such change. The transformational leadership model is viewed as the best available theoretical approach to help unify the police leadership research and development activities. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

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The MMPI-2 as a tool for preventing police misconduct: A Victoria (Australia) police study
Stuart Macintyre, Carol Ronken and Tim Prenzler      213

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 213

The MMPI-2 as a tool for preventing police misconduct: A Victoria (Australia) police study
Stuart Macintyre, Carol Ronken and Tim Prenzler

The Police Department in the State of Victoria, Australia, has been conducting the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI and MMPI-2) on all recruits since 1985. In 1999, the Victoria Police Strategy and Services Group Tasking Committee commissioned an investigation that would test the usefulness of the MMPI- 2 in identifying undesirable applicants. Using discipline data held at the Ethical Standards Department (ESD) and psychometric data held by the Force Psychology Unit, this study involved the analysis of the MMPI-2 scores for two independent samples of police officers. The 'undesirables' sample (n = 149) had an inappropriate complaint history, while no members in the 'desirables' sample (n = 151) had any complaints recorded against their names. The two samples were matched for age, years of service, duties and rank. The primary question addressed by this study was whether the sample of members identified as 'undesirables' attained significantly different MMPI-2 scores than members identified as 'desirables'. A discriminant analysis was conducted which produced a predictive model that, overall, correctly classified 81.9 per cent of all the cases. While the predictive model correctly classi- fied 93.0'95.3 per cent of the 'undesirables', only 61.9'68.8 per cent of the 'desirables' were correctly categorised. These findings extend and refine the research literature on psychological testing and the prediction of unethical behaviour by police. They suggest that more use could be made of the MMPI-2 for screening out applicants who are at risk of future misconduct.

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Operational value of police helicopters: A cost-benefit analysis
Paul C. Whitehead      233

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 233

Operational value of police helicopters: A cost-benefit analysis
Paul C. Whitehead

A cost'benefit analysis is conducted to determine whether there are savings that can be attributed to the use of a helicopter in police work. Costs are based on the actual leasing and operational expenditures for the use of the helicopter for 1000 hours over a one-year period. The benefits are measured in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Efficiency is the monetised value of policing time that is saved by other police officers being cancelled from having to attend and by the amount of police downtime saved when the helicopter is involved. Effectiveness is measured by monetising the value of higher rates of apprehension when the helicopter is involved by taking into consideration the value of greater detective time to effect the balance of these apprehensions. The study concludes that at least 25 per cent of the cost appears as a saving (benefit) and further suggests that, if the helicopter were deployed differently, the benefit could be increased to at least about 42 per cent of cost. These benefits are in addition to a variety of non-monetised contributions that are unique to helicopter involvement.

The publisher would like to apologise for an error made in the acknowledgements in the above paper. They should read as follows:

'The author is indebted to current and former members of the London Police Service for the assistance that they provided in the execution of this study and the preparation of this paper: Chief Brian Collins; Deputy Chief Tony McGowan; Superintendent Rick Gillespie; Sergeant Bruce Nelson (retired); Valerie Beyer, now with Wilfird Laurier University; and Kim Darling, Supervisor Financial Services.'

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Preventive justice: Fears over female immorality in the USA lead to police positions for women, 1887 to the First World War
Dorothy Moses Schulz      248

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 248

Preventive justice: Fears over female immorality in the USA lead to police positions for women, 1887 to the First World War
Dorothy Moses Schulz

Demands for police matrons and policewomen in the SA in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are examples of middle-class women using the concept of women's sphere prior to and during the progressive era. Advocated and lobbied for by such groups as the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC), the Travelers' Aid Society, progressives, social hygienists and those espousing a higher moral standard for women than for men, first matrons and then policewomen used the language of social work and crime prevention to intervene in the lives of immigrant, poor or young women whose behaviour ' particularly their use of public amusements, and their sexual immorality ' was at odds with native-born, middle-class women's concepts of womanhood. Although criminalisation of women's behaviour was not what policewomen originally sought ' their writings contain images of motherhood and stress prevention over punishment ' their own professional expansion depended on intervention into the lives of other women. Ultimately, the roles they created led to the criminalisation of conduct by young women that had previously been handled informally. Policewomen acted as social control agents when definitions of ideal womanhood and women's place in the public sphere were undergoing radical change.

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Macpherson and after: Policing racist incidents in Midshire
Andrew Pilkington      265

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 4 (2002) 265

Macpherson and after: Policing racist incidents in Midshire
Andrew Pilkington

The Macpherson enquiry prompted the British state to acknowledge (for the first time) the existence of institutional racism in both police and other major organisations. Most of the recommendations of the report relates to the reporting of racist incidents. Various police forces across the country have embraced the recommendations, yet the implementation of these still seems to be fraught with difficulty. This article examines the response of one police force (Midshire), renowned for their proactive approach towards racist incidents, in implementing the recommendations as suggested by Macpherson. Particular attention is paid to the ways the occupational culture and the established practices of a primarily white police force mediate new policy initiatives. Victims of racist incidents, especially from minority ethnic groups, reveal a comparatively low overall satisfactory rating with the police response. A lack of appropriate training and a staff shortage at the unit responsible for supporting repeat victims are recognised as problem areas in implementing Macpherson's proposals.

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Book Reviews

Manhood: An Action Plan for Changing Men's Lives by Steve Biddulph
Reviewed by Alan Beckley      281

The Future of Policing by R. Morgan and T. Newburn
Reviewed by Desmond McDonnell      283

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Links to other issues

Volume 4 (2002) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 5 (2003) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 6 (2004) :   1   2   3

Volume 7 (2005) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 8 (2006) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 9 (2007) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 10 (2008) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 11 (2009) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 12 (2010) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 13 (2011) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 14 (2012) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 15 (2013) :   1   2   3   4

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