Contents

Volume 13 Number 3 2011
ISSN: 1461-3557  eISSN: 1478-1603

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ARTICLE

Rhetoric or restoration? A study into the restorative potential of the conditional cautioning scheme
Keywords: restorative justice, conditional caution, victim satisfaction
Robert A. Braddock      195
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.251

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 13 (2011) 195

Rhetoric or restoration? A study into the restorative potential of the conditional cautioning scheme
Robert A. Braddock

In December 2007, the conditional caution scheme was introduced as a result of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The aim of this scheme was to provide an additional option to the range of ┐out of court disposals', which can be imposed on offenders for minor offences without the necessity of court appearances. The conditional caution is an enhanced caution which allows conditions to be imposed, such as reparation, letters of apology or drug and alcohol awareness courses, which must be fulfilled in order for the caution to be completed. Restorative justice is also an option with regard to these cautions. After canvassing stakeholders within this process, it was observed that the concept of introducing victim┐offender mediation within the cautioning process was not commonly viewed as a positive step. The majority of victims were not in favour of this, and other criminal justice stakeholders were also divided as to whether this would be beneficial. The motivation behind these responses differed according to the role played within the process, with victims being pessimistic regarding the benefits of this approach, and criminal justice professionals expressing concern with regard to the time-consuming nature of these activities. An additional flaw in this process centred around communication with victims. There appeared to be a disparity between contacts with different victim types, with corporate victims only contacted if time allowed. This indicated that time constraints were a specific deciding factor with regard to the process.

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Managers in suits and managers in uniforms: sources and outcomes of occupational stress
Keywords: police, private sector, managers, stress, locus of control, workrelated values, individual differences, Central Europe
Milan Pagon, Paul E. Spector, Cary L. Cooper and Branko Lobnikar      211
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.245

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 13 (2011) 211

Managers in suits and managers in uniforms: sources and outcomes of occupational stress
Milan Pagon, Paul E. Spector, Cary L. Cooper and Branko Lobnikar

Sources and outcomes of occupational stress among police managers are examined on a sample of 267 senior police officers in one of the Central European countries, using the Occupational Stress Indicator 2 (OSI 2), the Work Locus of Control Scale, the Hofstede's Scale of Work-Related Values, as well as several demographic variables. The results are then contrasted with those of 232 managers in private industry in the same country. Managers in the private sector work longer hours, report higher impatience (one component of a Type A behaviour pattern), are more internal in locus of control, rely less on social support as a means of coping with stress, and perceive more masculinity, less uncertainty avoidance, and less long-term orientation in their culture than do their police counterparts. Police managers, on the other hand, perceive more pressures related to their workload, relationships, work hassles, recognition and organisational climate. As a consequence, they are less satisfied with the job itself and with their organisation, and more frequently consider an option of quitting their job. At the same time, police managers report better physical wellbeing and higher mental contentment than their colleagues in private industry. The results are discussed in terms of their practical value for police administrators.

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Police and security officer experiences of occupational violence and injury in Australia
Keywords: occupational violence, workplace injuries, police, security
Patricia Ferguson, Tim Prenzler, Rick Sarre and Bryan de Caires      223
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.239

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 13 (2011) 223

Police and security officer experiences of occupational violence and injury in Australia
Patricia Ferguson, Tim Prenzler, Rick Sarre and Bryan de Caires

This study employed national workers' compensation data to examine and compare the nature and prevalence of work-related injuries and occupational violence experienced by Australian security officers and police between 2000 and 2008. The study found that while security officers' work-related injuries overall occurred at half the rate of police officers', the rates of occupational violence were about equal and followed the same trend over time ┐ rising during the mid 2000s and then declining steadily. However, injuries to security officers appeared more serious than those experienced by police. Security officers were twice as likely to sustain a head injury and, on average, lost about six weeks more work than police. Compared with all other Australian occupations, security and police were in the top three highest claiming occupations for work-related injuries and deaths from occupational violence, with security officers at number one in both instances. The findings add to the very limited literature on injuries and violence experienced by police and security officers. However, the findings also show the need for more research on the specific situational factors involved in injuries and on what works in prevention.

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Children's ability to estimate the frequency of single and repeated events
Keywords: children's memory, frequency judgments, repeated events
Stefanie J. Sharman, Martine B. Powell and Kim P. Roberts      234
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.243

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 13 (2011) 234

Children's ability to estimate the frequency of single and repeated events
Stefanie J. Sharman, Martine B. Powell and Kim P. Roberts

Although it is extremely important when interviewing children about alleged abuse to determine whether the abuse was a single or a repeated occurrence, we have little information about how children judge the frequency of events. The aim of the current study was to examine children's accuracy in providing estimates of event frequency that were numerical (that is, 1, 2, 3, . . .) and qualitative (that is, once, a few times, or many times). Younger (4- to 5-year-old) and older (6- to 8-year-old) children took part in a single event or an event that was repeated 6 or 11 times. They were interviewed after a short or long delay; some were interviewed a second time. Overall, children were very accurate at judging the frequency of a single event, but much less so for repeated events. Based on our findings, we make two recommendations for professionals trying to establish the frequency of events when interviewing young children.

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Municipal police officer job satisfaction in Pennsylvania: a study of organisational development in small police departments
Keywords: police satisfaction, police stress, police fatigue, small departments
Jason Julseth, James Ruiz and Don Hummer      243
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.228

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 13 (2011) 243

Municipal police officer job satisfaction in Pennsylvania: a study of organisational development in small police departments
Jason Julseth, James Ruiz and Don Hummer

Current policing literature indicates that the retention rate of patrol officers is in steady decline. On the whole, various policing factors that include fatigue, stress and workload appear to be major reasons for high turnover rates. In order to substantiate patrol officers' views of contemporary policing, we examined their perceptions of issues related to overall job satisfaction and correlating factors. Municipal police officers from 14 south central Pennsylvania police departments located in one mid-size county were surveyed to determine if there were any significant differences or correlations between perceptions of overall job satisfaction and previous research related to satisfaction with administration, shift work, equipment, community support, department morale and policies and procedures. Results indicate that there is an apparent connection between stress and overall job satisfaction. Most notably, higher stress levels, faster rotating shifts and officers' perceptions of department morale were shown to impact the levels of overall job satisfaction.

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A question of control? The formulation of suspect and witness interview question strategies by advanced interviewers
Keywords: questioning, suspects and witnesses, training
Andy Griffiths, Becky Milne and Julie Cherryman      255
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.219

ABSTRACT

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IJPSM 13 (2011) 255

A question of control? The formulation of suspect and witness interview question strategies by advanced interviewers
Andy Griffiths, Becky Milne and Julie Cherryman

All investigative interviews are dialogues set within a legal context specific to an individual country or jurisdiction. Nevertheless, the need to ask questions appropriately is common to every interview, if reliable information is to be obtained. Despite this fact, published research has frequently reported a lack of skill in both the types of questions used by interviewers and the manner in which they are asked. However, during a recent quantitative evaluation of an advanced interview training programme in the UK, it was observed that graduates of this programme, in contrast to previous research, appeared to employ highly structured questioning strategies, methodically covering relevant subject matter across the complete time-span of an interview. The current study is a follow-up study using an alternative qualitative methodology for a deeper exploration of the rationale behind the formation of these questioning strategies. Using ┐think-aloud' techniques, two independent groups of police officers (n=9) with advanced training in interviewing of either suspects or witnesses were individually interviewed about how they had structured their questioning during two phases of a simulated interview conducted on a training course. The results confirm, first, the high level of conscious decision-making employed by the advanced interviewers in formulating their question strategies, but secondly, identify excessive levels of control evident in some interviews with compliant witnesses. Finally, the results confirm the complex nature of real-life investigative interviewing, even for highly trained interviewers. The results are discussed.

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Book review

Karen Harrison      268
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.246

James Hoggett      270
DOI: doi: 10.1350/ijps.2011.13.3.254

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Links to other issues

Volume 4 (2002) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 5 (2003) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 6 (2004) :   1   2   3

Volume 7 (2005) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 8 (2006) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 9 (2007) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 10 (2008) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 11 (2009) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 12 (2010) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 13 (2011) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 14 (2012) :   1   2   3   4

Volume 15 (2013) :   1   2   3   4

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